Iran has denied Western allegations that one of its own missiles downed a Ukrainian airliner that crashed outside Tehran, killing all 176 people on board.
Western leaders said the plane appeared to have been unintentionally hit by a surface-to-air missile just hours after Iran launched around a dozen ballistic missiles at two US bases in Iraq to avenge the killing of its top general in an American air strike last week.
“What is obvious for us, and what we can say with certainty, is that no missile hit the plane,” Ali Abedzadeh, head of Iran’s national aviation department, told a press conference.
“If they are really sure, they should come and show their findings to the world” in accordance with international standards, he added.
Hassan Rezaeifar, the head of the Iranian investigation team, said recovering data from the black box flight recorders could take more than a month and that the entire investigation could stretch into next year.
He also said Iran may request help from international experts if it is not able to extract the flight recordings.
The ballistic missile attack on the bases in Iraq caused no casualties, raising hopes that the standoff over the killing of General Qassem Soleimani would end relatively peacefully, though Iran has sent mixed signals over whether its retaliation is complete.
If the US or Canada were to present incontrovertible evidence that the plane was shot down by Iran, even if unintentionally, it could have a dramatic impact on public opinion in Iran.
The Iranian public had rallied around the leadership after the killing of Gen Soleimani last Friday, with hundreds of thousands joining the general’s funeral processions in several cities, in an unprecedented display of grief and unity.
But sentiments in Iran are still raw over the government’s crackdown on large-scale protests late last year sparked by an economic crisis exacerbated by US sanctions.
The US officials did not say what intelligence they had that pointed to an Iranian missile, believed to be fired by a Russian Tor system known to Nato as the SA-15.
But they acknowledged the existence of satellites and other sensors in the region, as well as the likelihood of communication interceptions and other similar intelligence.
Western countries may hesitate to share information on such a strike because it comes from highly
Videos verified by the Associated Press appear to show the final seconds of the ill-fated airliner, which had just taken off from Iran.
In one video, a fast-moving light can be seen through the trees as someone films from the ground.
The light appears to be the burning plane, which plummets to the earth as a huge fireball illuminates the landscape.
Someone off-camera says in Farsi: “The plane has caught fire. … In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful. God, please help us. Call the fire department!”
Thank you @JustinTrudeau for your offer to support Ukraine in investigating the plane crash in Iran. For both our countries, it's a shared pain. Our thoughts are with the families of the citizens of Canada who died in this crash.
— Володимир Зеленський (@ZelenskyyUa) January 9, 2020
Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskiy said “the missile theory is not ruled out, but it has not been confirmed yet”.
In a Facebook post, he reiterated his call “on all international partners” – the US, Britain and Canada in particular – to share data and evidence relevant to the crash.
He also announced plans to discuss the investigation with US secretary of state Mike Pompeo.
Ukraine’s foreign minister Vadym Prystaiko said he and the president met US embassy officials on Friday and obtained “important data” about the crash.
The minister did not specify what kind of data it was, but said it would be “processed by our specialists”.
Iran’s state-run IRNA news agency quoted Foreign Ministry spokesman Abbas Mousavi as saying Iran “has invited both Ukraine and the Boeing company to participate in the investigations”.
He later said a 10-member Canadian delegation was heading to Iran to assist victims’ families.
Iran had initially said it would not allow Boeing to take part in the probe, going against prevailing international norms on crash investigations.
It later invited the US accident investigating agency to take part in the investigation.
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) said it would “evaluate its level of participation”, but its role could be limited by US sanctions on Iran.
US officials have also expressed concern about sending employees to Iran because of the heightened tensions.
Under rules set by a United Nations aviation organisation, the NTSB is entitled to participate because the crash involved a Boeing 737-800 jet that was designed and built in the US.
The French air accident investigation agency (BEA) is also taking part in the probe.
The plane’s engine was designed by CFM International, a joint company between French group Safran and US group GE Aviation.
A preliminary Iranian investigative report released on Thursday said that the airliner pilots never made a radio call for help and that the burning plane was trying to turn back for the airport when it went down.
The Iranian report suggested that a sudden emergency struck the Boeing 737, operated by Ukrainian International Airlines, just minutes after taking off from Imam Khomeini International Airport early on Wednesday.
Those findings are not inconsistent with the effect of a surface-to-air missile.
Such missiles are designed to explode near aircraft, shredding them with shrapnel.
There is no need to score a direct hit, and a stricken plane may look like it is turning back when in fact it is disintegrating.
Mr Abedzadeh had earlier said that by law there is “full co-ordination” between the country’s air defences and the civil aviation system.
He said authorities have recovered two black box flight recorders, saying they are “damaged” but readable, which may shed further light on what caused the crash.
Ukraine said Iranian authorities allowed Ukrainian investigators to examine fragments of the plane late on Thursday.
“It is too early on in the investigation to reveal specific details,” the statement from the Ukraine president’s office said.
It added that DNA is being collected from relatives of Ukrainians who died in the crash in order to identify the bodies.