The 64-year-old has been arrested by Police Scotland.
No further details of the charge have been released by the force.
A Police Scotland spokeswoman said: “We can confirm that a 64-year-old man has been arrested and charged, and a report will be sent to the procurator fiscal.
“Proceedings are now live under the contempt of court act.”
Mr Salmond, from Linlithgow, West Lothian, was the Scottish first minister from 2007 to 2014.